In a non-inferiority study, Buhl et al randomized 1,600 adults with moderate or severe COPD to use the new extra-long-acting beta agonist indacaterol 150 mcg or tiotropium 18 mcg inhaled once daily for 12 weeks. At the end of the study period, pre-dose FEV1 improvements were similar in both groups (~125 mL). Indacaterol induced higher post-dose FEV1 improvements at 5 minutes and 1 hour. Both drugs had roughly equal rates of adverse events (~9%). Indacaterol had a slight edge in subjective endpoints including the transitional dyspnea index and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Exacerbation rates were not reported during this short study.